The Concept of CMR
Definition and History
The current definition of the metabolic syndrome encompasses a cluster of metabolic abnormalities linked to insulin resistance, which is often associated with a high-risk form of overweight/obesity: excess abdominal obesity. Because these abnormalities increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes, numerous consensus groups have attempted to provide guidelines to identify patients in clinical practice with these atherogenic/diabetogenic metabolic abnormalities. Although the number of publications on the metabolic syndrome is soaring, the concept of a cluster of abnormalities including obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension is not new and several physicians/investigators contributed to the development of this concept through astute clinical observations or epidemiological/metabolic studies. However, a clinical diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome is not sufficient to assess the risk of CVD. In order to properly evaluate and manage global CVD risk in clinical practice, it is important to take into account the risk associated with traditional risk factors as well as the potential additional contribution of abdominal obesity/insulin resistance and related complications. This global risk is referred to as global cardiometabolic risk.